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赵燕菁:边缘城市的竞争对策——效用型城市

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年10月24日 10:03:36
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龙虎和登陆平台直招龙虎代理客服QQ/微信【957734114】诚招代理【在线开户网址um996.com】龙虎和龙虎1赔2.211合1赔9.95,定位胆1赔9.95腾讯分分彩,5分,10分彩,最高返水100反9快,最高赔率,正规信誉大平台平台24h提供注册及登录。赵燕菁:边缘城市的竞争对策——效用型城市

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(U:城)(市)(居)(民)(获)(得)(的)(效)(用)((Utility),包)(括)(交)(通)(、教)(育)(、医)(疗)(、治)(安)(、法)(律)(等)(公)(共)(服)(务)(
C:城)(市)(居)(民)(为)(公)(共)(服)(务)(支)(付)(的)(成)(本)((Cost)
P:不)(同)(城)(市)(的)(性)(价)(比)((performanceratio)
在)(该)(阶)(段)(,人)(们)(选)(择)(城)(市)(就)(和)(购)(物)(一)(样)(,由)(城)(市)(的)(性)(价)(比)(而)(决)(定)(。一)(座)(很)(好)(的)(城)(市)(,如)(果)(我)(住)(不)(起)(,它)(再)(好)(对)(我)(来)(说)(也)(没)(用)(;另)(一)(座)(城)(市)(,如)(果)(没)(有)(学)(校)(,没)(有)(医)(院)(,没)(有)(基)(本)(的)(公)(共)(服)(务)(,生)(活)(不)(方)(便)(,再)(便)(宜)(我)(也)(不)(去)(。因)(此)(,城)(市)(依)(靠)(两)(个)(方)(式)(能)(提)(升)(性)(价)(比)(:一)(是)(降)(低)(成)(本)(,二)(是)(提)(高)(效)(用)(。
我)(们)(把)(通)(过)(降)(低)(成)(本)(实)(现)(城)(市)(增)(长)(的)(方)(式)(,称)(作)(“C型)((cost)扩)(张)(”,比)(如)(上)(海)(、北)(京)(、深)(圳)(等)(一)(线)(核)(心)(城)(市)(,都)(是)(通)(过)(扩)(大)(规)(模)(降)(低)(成)(本)(作)(为)(主)(要)(竞)(争)(手)(段)(的)(“规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(”。城)(市)(人)(口)(规)(模)(越)(大)(,每)(个)(居)(民)(负)(担)(的)(成)(本)(就)(越)(低)(,城)(市)(竞)(争)(力)(就)(越)(强)(。由)(于)(公)(共)(服)(务)(有)(着)(显)(著)(的)(规)(模)(效)(益)(,巨)(大)(的)(规)(模)(保)(证)(了)(高)(水)(平)(基)(础)(设)(施)((机)(场)(、通)(讯)(、高)(铁)(、地)(铁)(、港)(口)(、教)(育)(等)()可)(以)(以)(更)(低)(的)(成)(本)(提)(供)(更)(高)(水)(平)(的)(公)(共)(服)(务)(。因)(此)(具)(有)(规)(模)(优)(势)(的)(城)(市)(,可)(以)(通)(过)(不)(断)(扩)(张)(,降)(低)(平)(均)(公)(共)(服)(务)(成)(本)(C,提)(高)(居)(民)(的)(性)(价)(比)(P。
图)(2:消)(费)(者)(预)(算)(不)(足)(时)(的)(城)(市)(规)(模)(边)(界)(:C型)((cost)扩)(张)(
既)(然)(规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(由)(于)(公)(共)(服)(务)(显)(著)(的)(规)(模)(效)(益)(难)(以)(超)(越)(,其)(他)(城)(市)(该)(如)(何)(提)(升)(竞)(争)(力)(呢)(?答)(案)(就)(是)(提)(高)(效)(用)(,如)(何)(提)(高)(效)(用)(?在)(回)(答)(这)(个)(问)(题)(之)(前)(,我)(们)(需)(要)(回)(到)(经)(济)(学)(的)(一)(个)(基)(本)(假)(设)(——所)(有)(“消)(费)(人)(”的)(偏)(好)(都)(是)(不)(一)(样)(的)(。这)(就)(意)(味)(着)(每)(一)(种)(产)(品)(最)(多)(只)(能)(“完)(全)(”满)(足)(一)(个)(消)(费)(人)(。其)(余)(的)(消)(费)(人)(都)(存)(在)(或)(多)(或)(少)(的)(损)(失)((尽)(管)(效)(用)(仍)(是)(正)(的)()。没)(有)(被)(完)(全)(满)(足)(的)(部)(分)(,定)(义)(为)(效)(用)(耗)(散)((utilitydissipative)。与)(理)(性)(生)(产)(者)(追)(求)(最)(大)(化)(利)(润)(的)(假)(设)(一)(样)(,理)(性)(消)(费)(人)(是)(追)(求)(效)(用)(最)(大)(化)(。
这)(就)(是)(意)(味)(着)(几)(乎)(每)(一)(个)(集)(体)(消)(费)(公)(共)(服)(务)(的)(城)(市)(人)(口)(,都)(存)(在)(效)(用)(损)(失)(。城)(市)(规)(模)(越)(大)(,效)(用)(的)(损)(失)(就)(越)(大)(。可)(以)(用)(一)(个)(鞋)(子)(的)(市)(场)(来)(解)(释)(这)(种)(效)(用)(损)(失)(。假)(设)(每)(一)(个)(人)(的)(脚)(都)(是)(不)(同)(的)(。而)(生)(产)(者)(生)(产)(的)(鞋)(则)(是)(完)(全)(一)(样)((因)(为)(规)(模)(经)(济)()。结)(果)(必)(然)(只)(有)(一)(双)(脚)(可)(以)(完)(全)(符)(合)(这)(个)(鞋)(的)(尺)(寸)(。而)(其)(他)(所)(有)(消)(费)(者)(的)(脚)(都)(没)(有)(得)(到)(完)(全)(的)(满)(足)(。为)(了)(减)(少)(消)(费)(者)(的)(效)(用)(耗)(散)(,就)(需)(要)(鞋)(的)(“种)(类)(”越)(多)(越)(好)(。可)(选)(择)(的)(尺)(码)(越)(多)(,脚)(的)(满)(足)(程)(度)(就)(越)(高)(。当)(每)(一)(双)(脚)(都)(订)(做)(一)(双)(鞋)(时)(,效)(用)(最)(大)(。换)(句)(话)(说)(,对)(于)(消)(费)(者)(来)(讲)(,并)(不)(是)(价)(格)(越)(低)(越)(好)(,在)(买)(得)(起)(的)(条)(件)(下)(,种)(类)(越)(多)(,选)(择)(越)(多)(,被)(满)(足)(的)(几)(率)(和)(程)(度)(就)(越)(高)(。在)(城)(市)(里)(,每)(一)(个)(公)(共)(服)(务)(都)(可)(以)(是)(这)(样)(的)(“鞋)(子)(”,越)(是)(规)(模)(经)(济)(,越)(是)(满)(足)(的)(效)(用)(有)(限)(。
图)(3:规)(模)(扩)(大)(带)(来)(成)(本)(降)(低)(,却)(导)(致)(效)(用)(耗)(散)(
怎)(样)(减)(少)(这)(样)(的)(效)(用)(损)(耗)(?这)(就)(需)(要)(和)(规)(模)(经)(济)(相)(反)(的)(服)(务)(——多)(种)(多)(样)(针)(对)(特)(定)(需)(求)(的)(专)(门)(化)(服)(务)(。在)(1.0阶)(段)(,这)(样)(的)(专)(门)(化)(服)(务)(由)(于)(价)(格)(昂)(贵)(而)(难)(以)(提)(供)(,进)(入)(2.0阶)(段)(,预)(算)(约)(束)(对)(于)(高)(净)(值)(的)(消)(费)(者)(而)(言)(已)(不)(再)(是)(约)(束)(,其)(消)(费)(约)(束)(是)(寻)(找)(不)(到)(满)(足)(其)(偏)(好)(的)(消)(费)(品)(,是)(市)(场)(规)(模)(难)(以)(扩)(大)(的)(主)(要)(约)(束)(。换)(句)(话)(说)(,此)(时)(的)(市)(场)(需)(求)(不)(是)(受)(到)(成)(本)(过)(高)(限)(制)(,而)(是)(受)(到)(效)(用)(缺)(失)(的)(限)(制)(——有)(钱)(买)(不)(到)(对)(路)(的)(服)(务)(。这)(就)(是)(供)(给)(侧)(不)(足)(,使)(得)(消)(费)(侧)(潜)(力)(难)(以)(释)(放)(。
图)(4:种)(类)(增)(加)(,效)(用)(耗)(散)((阴)(影)(部)(分)()减)(少)(
显)(然)(,规)(模)(经)(济)(和)(专)(门)(化)(经)(济)(是)(两)(个)(相)(反)(的)(选)(择)(,不)(可)(能)(同)(时)(被)(满)(足)(。由)(于)(规)(模)(经)(济)(是)(“核)(心)(城)(市)(”的)(优)(势)(,反)(过)(来)(量)(身)(定)(做)(的)(专)(门)(化)(服)(务)(就)(是)(“核)(心)(城)(市)(”的)(劣)(势)(。这)(就)(给)(“边)(缘)(城)(市)(”参)(与)(区)(域)(竞)(争)(带)(来)(了)(新)(机)(会)(。只)(要)(“边)(缘)(城)(市)(”可)(以)(创)(造)(出)(足)(够)(高)(的)(效)(用)(U,即)(使)(成)(本)(C很)(高)(,也)(足)(以)(形)(成)(相)(对)(“核)(心)(城)(市)(”较)(高)(的)(性)(价)(比)(P。
当)(城)(市)(化)(进)(入)(2.0阶)(段)(,城)(市)(公)(共)(服)(务)(从)(成)(本)(竞)(争)(转)(向)(效)(用)(竞)(争)(——城)(市)(通)(过)(提)(高)(效)(用)(U而)(不)(是)(降)(低)(成)(本)(C来)(获)(得)(更)(强)(大)(的)(竞)(争)(力)(P。在)(1.0阶)(段)(成)(本)(竞)(争)(中)(失)(败)(的)(边)(缘)(地)(区)(,可)(以)(通)(过)(发)(现)(并)(提)(升)(本)(地)(独)(一)(无)(二)(的)(效)(用)(重)(新)(获)(得)(新)(的)(竞)(争)(力)(。如)(果)(说)(核)(心)(城)(市)(的)(竞)(争)(力)(P主)(要)(来)(自)(低)(成)(本)(C,那)(么)(边)(缘)(城)(市)(的)(核)(心)(竞)(争)(力)(主)(要)(来)(自)(于)(高)(效)(用)(U。我)(们)(把)(通)(过)(提)(升)(城)(市)(效)(用)(U作)(为)(主)(要)(竞)(争)(手)(段)(的)(城)(市)(,称)(为)(U型)(扩)(张)(的)(“效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(”,或)(“专)(门)(化)(城)(市)(”。
图)(5:消)(费)(人)(效)(用)(/偏)(好)(限)(定)(的)(城)(市)(规)(模)(:U型)((utility)扩)(张)(
随)(着)(消)(费)(者)(收)(入)(的)(持)(续)(增)(加)(,效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(成)(为)(成)(长)(新)(形)(态)(。核)(心)(城)(市)(内)(人)(们)(的)(不)(同)(偏)(好)(,给)(边)(缘)(城)(市)(、非)(核)(心)(城)(市)(带)(来)(增)(长)(点)(。只)(有)(创)(造)(效)(用)(而)(不)(是)(降)(低)(成)(本)(,才)(能)(为)(城)(市)(寻)(找)(到)(新)(的)(动)(力)(。高)(净)(值)(消)(费)(在)(空)(间)(上)(的)(分)(离)(,为)(专)(门)(化)(城)(市)(提)(供)(了)(可)(能)(。专)(门)(化)(城)(市)((Customizedcity),提)(供)(量)(身)(定)(做)(式)(的)(公)(共)(服)(务)(,精)(确)(满)(足)(高)(价)(值)(的)(个)(性)(需)(求)(,追)(求)(更)(高)(性)(价)(比)(而)(非)(低)(成)(本)(。
效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(规)(划)(差)(异)(
“规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(”与)(“效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(”核)(心)(竞)(争)(模)(式)(的)(差)(异)(,决)(定)(了)(其)(规)(划)(方)(法)(存)(在)(着)(巨)(大)(差)(异)(。这)(就)(要)(求)(城)(市)(规)(划)(必)(须)(探)(索)(全)(新)(的)(规)(划)(指)(标)(体)(系)(、建)(设)(模)(式)(和)(维)(护)(管)(理)(模)(式)(,以)(下)(列)(出)(六)(个)(“效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(”规)(划)(与)(传)(统)(规)(划)(的)(主)(要)(差)(异)(方)(面)(。
要)(点)(1:城)(市)(性)(质)(
对)(于)(“规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(”的)(规)(划)(,无)(论)(大)(小)(,其)(城)(市)(的)(首)(要)(性)(质)(,都)(是)(所)(在)(地)(区)(的)(“中)(心)(”,唯)(一)(的)(差)(别)(就)(在)(于)(中)(心)(所)(覆)(盖)(的)(区)(域)(。不)(久)(前)(,各)(城)(市)(对)(“国)(家)(中)(心)(城)(市)(”头)(衔)(的)(争)(夺)(,就)(是)(反)(映)(了)(C型)(扩)(张)(的)(城)(市)(对)(“中)(心)(”的)(本)(能)(争)(夺)(。但)(对)(于)(效)(用)(城)(市)(而)(言)(,是)(谁)(的)(“中)(心)(”并)(不)(重)(要)(,重)(要)(的)(是)(同)(谁)(分)(工)(。效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(规)(划)(的)(第)(一)(步)(,就)(是)(选)(择)(与)(之)(分)(工)(的)(核)(心)(城)(市)(——“分)(工)(对)(象)(城)(市)(”。分)(工)(对)(象)(的)(等)(级)(越)(高)(,效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(所)(能)(参)(与)(的)(分)(工)(水)(平)(就)(高)(。城)(市)(增)(长)(动)(力)(来)(自)(于)(分)(工)(对)(象)(城)(市)(需)(求)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(,效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(城)(市)(性)(质)(,由)(核)(心)(城)(市)(缺)(什)(么)(功)(能)(来)(决)(定)(。
要)(点)(2:城)(市)(规)(模)(用)(地)(构)(成)(
规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(必)(定)(“大)(而)(全)(”,而)(边)(缘)(城)(市)(应)(该)(“小)(而)(专)(”。“效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(”的)(竞)(争)(力)(则)(需)(要)(依)(靠)(“量)(身)(定)(做)(”提)(供)(专)(门)(化)(的)(服)(务)(获)(得)(高)(性)(价)(比)(。城)(市)(用)(地)(结)(构)(突)(出)(专)(一)(功)(能)(而)(不)(是)(不)(同)(功)(能)(用)(地)(的)(“平)(衡)(”,不)(需)(要)(严)(格)(遵)(守)(传)(统)(意)(义)(上)(的)(规)(模)(与)(用)(地)(平)(衡)(表)(,例)(如)(某)(些)(旅)(游)(城)(市)(的)(居)(住)(用)(地)(要)(远)(远)(小)(于)(酒)(店)(的)(用)(地)(。只)(有)(“小)(而)(专)(”,才)(能)(最)(大)(限)(度)(地)(为)(特)(地)(人)(群)(“订)(制)(”专)(门)(的)(服)(务)(。
要)(点)(3:空)(间)(结)(构)(
崔)(恺)(院)(士)(在)(为)(贵)(州)(黔)(西)(南)(州)(义)(龙)(新)(区)(所)(做)(的)(一)(个)(规)(划)(中)(,提)(出)(“蔓)(藤)(城)(市)(”概)(念)(,这)(个)(概)(念)(可)(以)(形)(象)(地)(对)(效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(空)(间)(结)(构)(进)(行)(描)(述)(。效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(结)(构)(可)(以)(像)(“藤)(蔓)(”那)(样)(由)(“藤)(”和)(“叶)(”两)(部)(分)(组)(成)(。“藤)(”是)(为)(不)(同)(功)(能)(片)(区)(提)(供)(运)(输)(服)(务)(性)(干)(道)(。“叶)(”是)(不)(同)(的)(运)(营)(功)(能)(区)(,是)(分)(工)(对)(象)(城)(市)(功)(能)(一)(个)(片)(段)(。“叶)(”通)(过)(“藤)(”联)(系)(分)(工)(对)(象)(城)(市)(。“叶)(”的)(规)(模)(以)(效)(用)(最)(大)(化)(为)(原)(则)(——不)(是)(扩)(大)(单)(个)(“叶)(”,而)(是)(增)(加)(新)(的)(“叶)(”。“叶)(”功)(能)(自)(我)(平)(衡)(,“叶)(”的)(兴)(衰)(受)(制)(于)(分)(工)(对)(象)(的)(需)(求)(,而)(不)(影)(响)(其)(他)(“叶)(”的)(兴)(衰)(。蔓)(藤)(城)(市)(也)(导)(致)(污)(水)(、电)(力)(等)(设)(施)(的)(分)(散)(布)(局)(,城)(市)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(成)(本)(将)(增)(加)(。可)(见)(,以)(效)(用)(优)(先)(的)(城)(市)(布)(局)(,与)(规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(节)(约)(基)(础)(设)(施)(成)(本)(的)(规)(划)(原)(则)(截)(然)(相)(反)(。
图)(6:蔓)(藤)(城)(市)(结)(构)(:叶)(+藤)(
要)(点)(4:交)(通)(模)(式)(选)(择)(
效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(消)(费)(者)(,都)(是)(高)(净)(值)(人)(群)(,对)(高)(净)(值)(人)(群)(来)(说)(时)(间)(成)(本)(要)(远)(比)(价)(格)(成)(本)(更)(重)(要)(。如)(果)(一)(个)(城)(市)(的)(停)(驻)(时)(间)(是)(一)(周)(,而)(花)(在)(路)(上)(的)(时)(间)(就)(要)(三)(天)(,吸)(引)(力)(就)(会)(大)(幅)(下)(降)(。例)(如)(,云)(南)(的)(枢)(纽)(机)(场)(做)(得)(非)(常)(成)(功)(。大)(部)(分)(机)(场)(不)(是)(从)(目)(的)(地)(机)(场)(直)(飞)(各)(景)(区)(,而)(是)(全)(部)(飞)(到)(昆)(明)(,再)(由)(昆)(明)(机)(场)(转)(飞)(各)(地)(。在)(有)(限)(的)(人)(流)(下)(,支)(线)(机)(场)(也)(可)(以)(实)(现)(广)(域)(的)(分)(布)(和)(高)(频)(率)(。
图)(7:云)(南)(机)(场)(分)(布)(图)(
要)(点)(5:差)(异)(化)(的)(人)(口)(对)(策)(
效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(人)(口)(构)(成)(与)(规)(模)(型)(城)(市)(不)(同)(,其)(主)(要)(的)(居)(民)(由)(流)(动)(人)(口)(构)(成)(。这)(部)(分)(人)(口)(是)(城)(市)(服)(务)(的)(主)(要)(对)(象)(,是)(城)(市)(运)(营)(的)(主)(要)(收)(益)(来)(源)(,因)(此)(流)(动)(人)(口)(应)(尽)(量)(多)(。这)(部)(分)(人)(在)(自)(己)(居)(住)(的)(城)(市)(工)(作)(生)(活)(,只)(有)(一)(部)(分)(片)(段)(时)(间)(轮)(流)(在)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(消)(费)(。原)(住)(居)(民)(是)(城)(市)(的)(主)(要)(获)(益)(者)(,效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(应)(充)(分)(利)(用)(原)(住)(人)(口)(的)(在)(地)(基)(因)(,为)(城)(市)(提)(供)(土)(地)(、民)(居)(样)(式)(、在)(地)(风)(俗)(以)(创)(造)(与)(分)(工)(城)(市)(反)(差)(的)(独)(特)(性)(。为)(原)(住)(民)(创)(造)(可)(持)(续)(的)(商)(业)(模)(式)(是)(效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(主)(要)(目)(标)(,原)(住)(人)(口)(应)(尽)(量)(少)(,这)(样)(人)(均)(收)(入)(就)(越)(高)(。另)(外)(,就)(业)(人)(口)(要)(合)(适)(,就)(业)(人)(口)(是)(原)(住)(人)(口)(雇)(来)(为)(流)(动)(人)(口)(服)(务)(的)(人)(,比)(如)(酒)(店)(的)(服)(务)(员)(、经)(理)(,城)(市)(的)(保)(安)(、消)(防)(、物)(业)(、垃)(圾)(、路)(灯)(、污)(水)(等)(部)(门)(的)(从)(业)(人)(员)(,是)(城)(市)(另)(一)(个)(主)(要)(的)(人)(口)(构)(成)(。这)(类)(人)(口)(的)(数)(量)(将)(影)(响)(效)(用)(城)(市)(的)(服)(务)(水)(平)(,就)(业)(人)(口)(太)(少)(,服)(务)(水)(平)(肯)(定)(不)(会)(很)(高)(。
要)(点)(6:制)(度)(设)(计)(
效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(适)(于)(采)(用)(各)(组)(团)(自)(治)(为)(主)(的)(模)(式)(。每)(一)(个)(“叶)(片)(”相)(当)(于)(一)(个)(自)(治)(的)(“小)(单)(元)(”(可)(能)(是)(一)(个)(小)(城)(市)(、或)(城)(市)(组)(团)(,也)(可)(能)(是)(镇)(、村)(等)(人)(居)(聚)(落)(),可)(以)(采)(用)(多)(样)(化)(的)(运)(营)(。“叶)(子)(”之)(间)(,农)(民)(可)(以)(出)(售)(环)(境)(给)(城)(市)(。项)(目)(启)(动)(可)(以)(由)(政)(府)(和)(原)(住)(民)(发)(起)(成)(立)(公)(司)(。政)(府)(负)(责)(土)(地)(整)(理)(和)(“藤)(”和)(“根)(”(外)(部)(交)(通)()的)(建)(设)(;原)(住)(民)(提)(供)(土)(地)(、参)(与)(治)(理)(。政)(府)(到)(分)(工)(对)(象)(城)(市)(招)(商)(,并)(向)(符)(合)(条)(件)(的)(运)(营)(商)(转)(让)(股)(权)(,收)(回)(成)(本)(后)(退)(出)(。原)(住)(民)(成)(为)(只)(参)(与)(分)(红)(的)(优)(先)(股)(股)(东)(。运)(营)(商)(获)(得)(政)(府)(转)(让)(的)(股)(权)(,全)(权)(负)(责)(策)(划)(、投)(资)(并)(根)(据)(招)(商)(约)(定)(向)(政)(府)(交)(税)(。运)(营)(商)(达)(不)(到)(约)(定)(税)(收)(要)(求)(的)(,由)(政)(府)(按)(照)(约)(定)(标)(准)(赎)(回)(重)(新)(招)(标)(。
实)(例)(借)(鉴)(
实)(例)(1:迪)(拜)(——为)(富)(豪)(订)(制)(
迪)(拜)(是)(阿)(联)(酋)(的)(第)(二)(大)(城)(市)(,面)(积)(3885平)(方)(公)(里)(,约)(占)(全)(国)(总)(面)(积)(的)(5%。40年)(前)(,迪)(拜)(选)(择)(了)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(的)(方)(向)(——为)(全)(球)(最)(顶)(级)(的)(消)(费)(者)(服)(务)(。所)(有)(城)(市)(建)(设)(——从)(七)(星)(级)(帆)(船)(酒)(店)(到)(世)(界)(最)(高)(的)(哈)(利)(法)(塔)(——都)(为)(世)(界)(的)(富)(豪)(量)(身)(定)(做)(,形)(成)(了)(典)(型)(的)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(人)(口)(结)(构)(和)(交)(通)(模)(式)(。2016年)(,迪)(拜)(拥)(有)(大)(量)(的)(流)(动)(人)(口)(,过)(夜)(游)(客)(1490万)(,日)(间)(活)(跃)(人)(口)(超)(过)(350万)(。从)(事)(服)(务)(业)(的)(人)(口)(254.7万)(,而)(原)(住)(人)(口)(仅)(有)(38万)(,只)(占)(总)(人)(口)(的)(15%。拥)(有)(高)(人)(均)(指)(标)(,2015年)(,GDP972亿)(美)(元)(,原)(住)(居)(民)(平)(均)(25万)(美)(元)(。迪)(拜)(之)(所)(以)(能)(同)(国)(际)(顶)(级)(城)(市)(群)(分)(工)(,主)(要)(依)(托)(迪)(拜)(国)(际)(机)(场)((DubaiInternationalAirport)。该)(机)(场)(2016年)(吞)(吐)(量)(高)(达)(8365万)(人)(次)(,仅)(次)(于)(亚)(特)(兰)(大)(和)(北)(京)(高)(居)(世)(界)(第)(三)(,显)(示)(出)(机)(场)(在)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(分)(工)(中)(的)(特)(殊)(地)(位)(。
图)(8:迪)(拜)(:与)(世)(界)(顶)(级)(城)(市)(分)(工)(
实)(例)(2:三)(亚)(——专)(业)(化)(旅)(游)(城)(市)(
1999年)(版)((2001年)(批)(准)()的)(《三)(亚)(市)(城)(市)(总)(体)(规)(划)(1995-2010》是)(国)(内)(最)(早)(的)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(规)(划)(实)(践)(之)(一)(。规)(划)(目)(标)(提)(出)(:“突)(出)(三)(亚)(市)(热)(带)(海)(滨)(旅)(游)(城)(市)(特)(征)(,逐)(步)(向)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(的)(方)(向)(发)(展)(。”规)(划)(放)(弃)(自)(求)(功)(能)(平)(衡)(的)(传)(统)(规)(划)(方)(法)(,将)(三)(亚)(的)(城)(市)(性)(质)(定)(位)(为)(专)(业)(化)(的)(旅)(游)(城)(市)(,一)(线)(城)(市)(的)(“后)(花)(园)(”。规)(划)(按)(照)(专)(业)(化)(城)(市)(的)(需)(求)(,大)(幅)(度)(减)(少)(与)(旅)(游)(无)(关)(的)(配)(套)(功)(能)((如)(产)(业)()用)(地)(。在)(人)(口)(规)(模)(方)(面)(,提)(出)(控)(制)(常)(住)(人)(口)(,发)(展)(服)(务)(人)(口)(,增)(加)(流)(动)(人)(口)(。另)(外)(,对)(城)(市)(结)(构)(和)(形)(态)(也)(进)(行)(了)(根)(本)(性)(调)(整)(。从)(原)(来)(在)(主)(城)(区)(集)(团)(式)(发)(展)(的)(空)(间)(模)(式)(,转)(变)(为)(沿)(海)(岸)(线)(“蔓)(藤)(”式)(增)(长)(——按)(照)(不)(同)(的)(湾)(区)(,形)(成)(不)(同)(特)(色)(、不)(同)(标)(准)(、不)(同)(旅)(游)(对)(象)(的)(城)(市)(组)(团)(。在)(运)(营)(方)(面)(,各)(组)(团)(之)(间)(不)(强)(调)(功)(能)(互)(补)(,而)(是)(独)(立)(建)(设)(、运)(营)(,并)(分)(别)(同)(一)(线)(城)(市)(展)(开)(分)(工)(。
图)(9:三)(亚)(市)(总)(体)(规)(划)((1995-2010)
实)(例)(3:红)(皮)(村)(
云)(南)(香)(格)(里)(拉)(洪)(塘)(镇)(红)(皮)(村)(海)(拔)(3,300.00米)(,年)(平)(均)(气)(温)(5℃。地)(僻)(人)(稀)(,农)(户)(402户)(,全)(部)(从)(事)(第)(一)(产)(业)(。十)(年)(前)((2006)全)(村)(经)(济)(总)(收)(入)(334.90万)(元)(,农)(民)(人)(均)(纯)(收)(入)(仅)(1,006元)(,属)(绝)(对)(贫)(困)(村)(。
2013年)(,来)(自)(法)(国)(的)(背)(包)(客)(Constantinde和)(来)(自)(福)(建)(的)(贝)(壳)(,两)(人)(设)(计)(复)(原)(了)(洛)(克)(的)(探)(险)(路)(线)(,5天)(4夜)(的)(行)(程)(中)(,马)(帮)(队)(伍)(经)(过)(高)(山)(垭)(口)(、森)(林)(、草)(原)(和)(湖)(泊)(,最)(后)(回)(到)(基)(地)(。基)(地)(就)(选)(在)(文)(化)(和)(风)(貌)(依)(然)(保)(持)(原)(生)(态)(的)(红)(皮)(村)(。为)(了)(确)(保)(一)(趟)(形)(成)(的)(品)(质)(保)(持)(到)(最)(佳)(,马)(队)(接)(纳)(的)(报)(名)(人)(数)(不)(会)(超)(过)(6个)(人)(。每)(名)(旅)(客)(能)(享)(受)(到)(接)(近)(3人)(和)(3匹)(马)(的)(服)(务)(。每)(位)(游)(客)(5天)(4晚)(的)(价)(格)(26800元)(,4天)(3晚)(价)(格)(23800元)(。加)(入)(马)(帮)(服)(务)(的)(村)(民)(连)(人)(带)(马)(,每)(位)(可)(以)(在)(四)(五)(天)(内)(挣)(到)(两)(千)(多)(块)(钱)(。
这)(意)(味)(着)(尽)(管)(红)(皮)(村)(还)(是)(原)(来)(的)(形)(态)(,但)(已)(经)(开)(始)(同)(遥)(远)(的)(城)(市)(分)(工)(,开)(始)(成)(为)(专)(业)(化)(的)(旅)(游)(城)(市)(。虽)(然)(按)(照)(增)(长)(型)(城)(市)(的)(定)(义)(,人)(口)(规)(模)(达)(到)(一)(定)(水)(平)(,才)(能)(定)(义)(为)(“城)(市)(”。但)(对)(于)(效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(而)(言)(,这)(一)(定)(义)(却)(并)(不)(需)(要)(。有)(时)(候)(规)(模)(越)(小)(,反)(而)(越)(容)(易)(实)(现)(专)(业)(化)(分)(工)(。原)(来)(非)(常)(原)(始)(的)(经)(济)(,可)(以)(一)(下)(子)(跳)(跃)(到)(很)(高)(的)(分)(工)(水)(平)(。
图)(10:云)(南)(古)(镇)(
图)(11:红)(皮)(村)(悦)(榕)(庄)(
图)(12:马)(帮)(之)(旅)(
实)(例)(4:法)(云)(安)(缦)(
位)(于)(杭)(州)(的)(“法)(云)(村)(”是)(一)(个)(普)(通)(的)(古)(村)(落)(。安)(缦)(是)(全)(球)(连)(锁)(的)(度)(假)(酒)(店)(,将)(村)(落)(买)(下)(后)(,把)(整)(个)(村)(子)(改)(建)(成)(高)(端)(酒)(店)(。法)(云)(安)(缦)(的)(设)(计)(概)(念)(为)(“18世)(纪)(的)(中)(国)(村)(落)(”。酒)(店)(尽)(量)(保)(持)(了)(杭)(州)(原)(始)(村)(落)(的)(木)(头)(及)(砖)(瓦)(结)(构)(,客)(房)(以)(不)(同)(的)(形)(式)(遍)(布)(于)(村)(庄)(中)(。甚)(至)(侍)(者)(的)(制)(服)(都)(使)(用)(了)(与)(村)(落)(极)(为)(合)(拍)(的)(土)(黄)(色)(。尽)(管)(酒)(店)(价)(格)(昂)(贵)(,但)(建)(成)(后)(国)(内)(外)(慕)(名)(而)(去)(者)(络)(绎)(不)(绝)(。可)(见)(,城)(镇)(化)(的)(本)(质)(不)(在)(人)(口)(多)(寡)(,而)(在)(分)(工)(和)(公)(共)(服)(务)(水)(平)(的)(高)(低)(。只)(要)(能)(发)(现)(或)(创)(造)(出)(独)(一)(无)(二)(的)(特)(色)(,并)(把)(其)(特)(殊)(的)(效)(用)(嫁)(接)(到)(核)(心)(城)(市)(的)(分)(工)(链)(中)(,即)(使)(一)(个)(村)(落)((甚)(至)(一)(栋)(房)(子)(),也)(可)(以)(立)(刻)(被)(“城)(市)(化)(”。
图)(13:法)(云)(寺)(安)(缦)(酒)(店)(
实)(例)(5:杭)(州)(战)(略)(
即)(使)(是)(大)(城)(市)(也)(可)(以)(转)(变)(为)(效)(用)(型)(增)(长)(的)(城)(市)(。在)(城)(市)(化)(1.0模)(式)(期)(间)(,杭)(州)(市)(沿)(西)(湖)(-钱)(塘)(江)(轴)(增)(长)(。由)(于)(钱)(塘)(新)(城)(的)(建)(设)(,西)(湖)(的)(周)(边)(区)(域)(也)(得)(到)(了)(较)(好)(的)(保)(留)(。那)(么)(,杭)(州)(下)(一)(步)(应)(该)(如)(何)(发)(展)(?我)(认)(为)(,可)(以)(沿)(钱)(塘)(江)(-富)(春)(江)(轴)(线)(,形)(成)(效)(用)(型)(增)(长)(。富)(春)(江)(的)(沿)(江)(景)(观)(具)(有)(典)(型)(的)(中)(国)(传)(统)(文)(化)(特)(色)(,是)(独)(特)(的)(景)(观)(资)(源)(,拥)(有)(发)(展)(专)(门)(化)(的)(度)(假)(酒)(店)(、国)(际)(会)(议)(的)(潜)(力)(。
图)(14:杭)(州)(城)(市)(发)(展)(轴)(线)(示)(意)(
图)(15:富)(春)(江)(的)(传)(统)(文)(化)(印)(象)(
结)(论)(
城)(市)(化)(进)(入)(2.0阶)(段)(,效)(用)(型)(增)(长)(取)(代)(成)(本)(型)(增)(长)(成)(为)(城)(市)(化)(的)(主)(要)(形)(态)(。以)(“特)(色)(小)(镇)(”来)(说)(,可)(以)(视)(作)(效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(,可)(以)(应)(用)(效)(用)(型)(城)(市)(的)(规)(划)(方)(法)(。特)(色)(小)(镇)(的)(“定)(位)(突)(出)(‘独)(特)(’特)(色)(是)(小)(镇)(的)(核)(心)(元)(素)(,产)(业)(特)(色)(是)(重)(中)(之)(重)(找)(准)(特)(色)(、凸)(显)(特)(色)(、放)(大)(特)(色)(,是)(小)(镇)(建)(设)(的)(关)(键)(所)(在)(”(李)(强)(,2015)。其)(产)(业)(定)(位)(不)(追)(求)(“大)(而)(全)(”,而)(是)(力)(求)(“特)(而)(强)(”。小)(镇)(应)(限)(制)(规)(模)(,“其)(规)(划)(面)(积)(一)(般)(控)(制)(在)(3平)(方)(公)(里)(左)(右)(,建)(设)(面)(积)(控)(制)(在)(1平)(方)(公)(里)(左)(右)(”。总)(之)(随)(着)(时)(代)(的)(变)(化)(,城)(市)(规)(划)(的)(方)(法)(也)(要)(随)(之)(改)(变)(。如)(何)(探)(索)(新)(的)(城)(市)(增)(长)(理)(论)(并)(将)(其)(转)(化)(为)(可)(操)(作)(的)(规)(划)(方)(法)(,很)(可)(能)(成)(为)(未)(来)(规)(划)(发)(展)(的)(主)(要)(方)(向)(。返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
责)(任)(编)(辑)(:
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