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【日本观察】东京房价为何不涨?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年10月24日 09:38:26
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澳洲幸运10计算公式平台直招龙虎代理客服QQ/微信【957734114】诚招代理【在线开户网址um996.com】龙虎和龙虎1赔2.211合1赔9.95,定位胆1赔9.95腾讯分分彩,5分,10分彩,最高返水100反9快,最高赔率,正规信誉大平台平台24h提供注册及登录。【日本观察】东京房价为何不涨?

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(以)(下)(是)(不)(可)(思)(议)(的)(事)(实)(:2014年)(,总)(人)(口)(1330万)(、几)(无)(空)(余)(建)(筑)(用)(地)(的)(东)(京)(都)(新)(开)(工)(住)(房)(数)(为)(142417户)(,超)(过)(了)(整)(个)(加)(州)(的)(许)(可)(建)(房)(数)((83657户)(),也)(超)(过)(了)(英)(国)(全)(国)((总)(人)(口)(5430万)()的)(新)(开)(工)(数)((137010户)()。
东)(京)(新)(开)(工)(住)(房)(数)(稳)(步)(上)(升)(,这)(与)(更)(加)(不)(同)(寻)(常)(的)(事)(实)(紧)(密)(关)(联)(。与)(西)(方)(大)(城)(市)(房)(价)(暴)(涨)(形)(成)(强)(烈)(反)(差)(的)(是)(:东)(京)(的)(房)(价)(基)(本)(原)(地)(踏)(步)(走)(。离)(谱)(房)(价)(造)(成)(西)(方)(城)(市)(畸)(形)(式)(发)(展)(:导)(致)(年)(轻)(人)(与)(老)(年)(人)(对)(立)(、富)(者)(更)(富)(以)(及)(剥)(夺)(人)(才)(涌)(向)(好)(工)(作)(云)(集)(地)(段)(的)(机)(会)(。
这)(并)(非)(人)(口)(不)(断)(减)(少)(造)(成)(的)(结)(果)(。日)(本)(与)(其)(它)(国)(家)(一)(样)(,也)(经)(历)(了)(“回)(归)(城)(市)(”潮)(。位)(于)(东)(京)(中)(心)(地)(段)(、面)(积)(20平)(方)(公)(里)(、寸)(土)(寸)(金)(的)(弹)(丸)(之)(地)(港)(区)(,过)(去)(20年)(总)(人)(口)(从)(14.5万)(增)(至)(24.1万)(,大)(约)(增)(加)(了)(10万)(人)(,大)(幅)(增)(长)(66%。
在)(总)(面)(积)(121平)(方)(公)(里)(的)(旧)(金)(山)(,过)(去)(20年)(,也)(增)(加)(了)(约)(10万)(人)((总)(人)(口)(从)(74.6万)(增)(至)(86.5万)(),增)(长)(了)(12%。然)(而)(,旧)(金)(山)(与)(伦)(敦)(的)(房)(价)(过)(去)(20年)(分)(别)(飚)(升)(了)(231%与)(441%,东)(京)(港)(区)(在)(人)(口)(增)(加)(的)(同)(时)(,20年)(间)(房)(价)(仅)(仅)(增)(长)(45%,而)(多)(数)(涨)(幅)(还)(是)(日)(本)(央)(行)((BankofJapan)2013年)(推)(出)(大)(规)(模)(货)(币)(刺)(激)(政)(策)(所)(致)(。
东)(京)(的)(街)(头)(巷)(尾)(并)(无)(烦)(人)(的)(房)(价)(热)(议)(,因)(为)(房)(价)(多)(年)(来)(增)(长)(不)(多)(。买)(房)(还)(是)(租)(房)(并)(不)(是)(了)(不)(得)(的)(人)(生)(大)(事)(。相)(反)(,日)(本)(政)(府)(不)(断)(向)(国)(民)(交)(付)(质)(量)(稳)(步)(提)(高)(、地)(处)(不)(同)(地)(段)(的)(更)(多)(房)(源)(。
而)(在)(很)(多)(国)(家)(,城)(市)(住)(房)(已)(演)(变)(成)(现)(今)(最)(重)(大)(的)(社)(会)(与)(经)(济)(问)(题)(。(如)(果)(更)(多)(英)(国)(人)(移)(居)(到)(首)(都)(伦)(敦)(,他)(们)(还)(会)(公)(投)(支)(持)(脱)(欧)((Brexit)吗)(?)因)(此)(,我)(们)(有)(必)(要)(深)(入)(研)(究)(东)(京)(为)(何)(有)(此)(了)(不)(起)(的)(成)(就)(、房)(源)(持)(续)(供)(应)(情)(况)(下)(的)(房)(价)(为)(何)(能)(保)(持)(基)(本)(不)(变)(以)(及)(从)(中)(可)(以)(吸)(取)(什)(么)(经)(验)(教)(训)(。
与)(日)(本)(多)(数)(机)(构)(一)(样)(,日)(本)(城)(市)(规)(划)(最)(初)(完)(全)(借)(鉴)(西)(方)(模)(式)(。“我)(们)(的)(规)(划)(与)(美)(国)(大)(同)(小)(异)(。”东)(京)(大)(学)((UniversityofTokyo)城)(市)(工)(程)(学)(教)(授)(小)(泉)(冈)(田)((JunichiroOkata)说)(。
城)(市)(按)(不)(同)(功)(能)(划)(分)(为)(商)(业)(区)(、工)(业)(区)(以)(及)(住)(宅)(区)(。商)(业)(区)(可)(按)(业)(主)(自)(己)(意)(愿)(建)(房)(:东)(京)(的)(高)(招)(之)(一)(就)(是)(在)(原)(先)(绕)(东)(京)(湾)(的)(工)(业)(区)(不)(断)(兴)(建)(高)(层)(公)(寓)(楼)(。但)(在)(低)(层)(住)(宅)(区)(,建)(房)(则)(有)(着)(严)(格)(限)(制)(,很)(难)(获)(得)(重)(新)(规)(划)(的)(权)(限)(。
在)(分)(区)(规)(划)(下)(,土)(地)(所)(有)(者)(拥)(有)(很)(多)(权)(力)(。事)(实)(上)(,日)(本)(宪)(法)(规)(定)(“拥)(有)(或)(持)(有)(的)(物)(权)(神)(圣)(不)(可)(侵)(犯)(”。私)(人)(开)(发)(商)(不)(能)(强)(迫)(业)(主)(出)(售)(土)(地)(;地)(方)(政)(府)(也)(不)(能)(阻)(止)(个)(人)(开)(发)(土)(地)(。诸)(位)(若)(想)(建)(一)(幢)(正)(面)(装)(饰)(粉)(色)(贝)(壳)(的)(仿)(哥)(特)(式)(城)(堡)(,完)(全)(是)(自)(己)(说)(了)(算)(。
在)(加)(州)(沿)(海)(城)(市)(,分)(区)(规)(划)(已)(导)(致)(城)(市)(建)(设)(处)(于)(瘫)(痪)(状)(态)(,新)(房)(供)(应)(难)(以)(为)(继)(,原)(因)(是)(现)(有)(业)(主)(阻)(止)(进)(一)(步)(开)(发)(。这)(与)(上)(世)(纪)(80年)(代)(的)(东)(京)(如)(出)(一)(辙)(。
“上)(世)(纪)(80年)(代)(,日)(本)(的)(房)(价)(因)(大)(肆)(投)(机)(而)(形)(成)(巨)(大)(泡)(沫)(,境)(况)(比)(同)(时)(期)(的)(伦)(敦)(与)(纽)(约)(更)(甚)(,日)(本)(许)(多)(经)(济)(学)(家)(都)(齐)(声)(谴)(责)(规)(划)(与)(分)(区)(政)(策)(,指)(其)(是)(减)(少)(房)(屋)(供)(应)(的)(罪)(魁)(祸)(首)(。”多)(伦)(多)(大)(学)((UniversityofToronto)地)(理)(学)(教)(授)(索)(伦)(森)((AndréSorensen)说)(,他)(就)(日)(本)(的)(规)(划)(政)(策)(写)(了)(大)(量)(文)(章)(。
但)(是)(,正)(是)(上)(世)(纪)(80年)(代)(的)(房)(地)(产)(泡)(沫)(奠)(定)(了)(东)(京)(中)(心)(城)(区)(未)(来)(建)(房)(的)(基)(础)(,日)(本)(森)(大)(厦)(株)(式)(会)(社)((MoriBuilding)房)(产)(公)(司)(顾)(问)(HiroIchikawa说)(。楼)(市)(崩)(盘)(后)(,开)(发)(商)(手)(中)(只)(剩)(高)(价)(屯)(积)(的)(写)(字)(楼)(地)(块)(,而)(这)(些)(地)(块)(当)(时)(已)(无)(人)(问)(津)(。
上)(世)(纪)(90年)(代)(,地)(产)(商)(的)(不)(良)(贷)(款)(使)(日)(本)(金)(融)(机)(构)(濒)(临)(崩)(溃)(,于)(是)(政)(府)(放)(松)(了)(楼)(市)(开)(发)(政)(策)(,最)(终)(以)(2002年)(出)(台)(《城)(市)(复)(兴)(法)(》(UrbanRenaissanceLaw)而)(告)(终)(。该)(法)(给)(重)(新)(分)(区)(规)(划)(大)(开)(绿)(灯)(。写)(字)(楼)(地)(块)(重)(新)(规)(划)(为)(住)(宅)(区)(。“为)(了)(帮)(助)(经)(济)(从)(泡)(沫)(中)(恢)(复)(元)(气)(,日)(本)(政)(府)(放)(松)(了)(城)(市)(开)(发)(的)(监)(管)(。”Ichikawa说)(,“多)(亏)(了)(当)(初)(的)(楼)(市)(泡)(沫)(,否)(则)(东)(京)(就)(会)(与)(现)(在)(的)(伦)(敦)(和)(旧)(金)(山)(一)(样)(束)(手)(无)(策)(。”
过)(道)(与)(公)(共)(用)(地)(不)(计)(入)(公)(寓)(房)(建)(筑)(面)(积)(,导)(致)(公)(寓)(楼)(在)(现)(有)(区)(划)(内)(越)(建)(越)(高)(,而)(如)(今)(正)(在)(讨)(论)(中)(的)(议)(案)(则)(允)(许)(业)(主)(重)(建)(更)(大)(面)(积)(的)(住)(房)(,前)(提)(是)(他)(们)(必)(须)(拆)(掉)(按)(昔)(日)(地)(震)(标)(准)(建)(造)(的)(房)(屋)(。
这)(条)(法)(律)(从)(中)(央)(政)(府)(自)(上)(而)(下)(贯)(彻)(落)(实)(,允)(许)(业)(主)(拆)(旧)(建)(新)(意)(味)(着)(他)(们)(能)(很)(快)(从)(中)(获)(利)(。“城)(市)(规)(划)(法)(以)(及)(建)(筑)(法)(都)(由)(中)(央)(政)(府)(制)(定)(——甚)(至)(微)(小)(细)(节)(都)(写)(入)(了)(全)(国)(性)(法)(律)(。”冈)(田)(说)(,“地)(方)(政)(府)(在)(房)(屋)(开)(发)(方)(面)(,基)(本)(没)(啥)(发)(言)(权)(。”
“不)(重)(建)(这)(些)(房)(屋)(,我)(们)(就)(无)(法)(在)(地)(震)(中)(保)(护)(国)(民)(生)(命)(。”野)(口)(隆)(彦)(说)(,这)(反)(映)(了)(日)(本)(社)(会)(的)(主)(流)(观)(点)(:所)(有)(建)(筑)(都)(是)(满)(足)(一)(时)(之)(需)(,而)(且)(可)(随)(意)(拆)(除)(,这)(是)(东)(京)(与)(西)(方)(大)(城)(市)(另)(一)(本)(质)(差)(别)(。“东)(京)(目)(前)(还)(有)(很)(多)(旧)(建)(筑)(云)(集)(的)(地)(段)(,可)(以)(增)(加)(住)(房)(容)(积)(率)(。”
持)(续)(不)(断)(的)(重)(建)(很)(好)(解)(释)(为)(何)(东)(京)(住)(房)(新)(开)(工)(率)(如)(此)(之)(高)(:住)(房)(的)(净)(增)(加)(数)(量)(低)(于)(以)(往)(。但)(与)(我)(的)(隔)(壁)(邻)(居)(一)(样)(,重)(建)(通)(常)(可)(以)(增)(加)(住)(宅)(密)(度)(。
但)(所)(有)(这)(一)(切)(都)(得)(付)(出)(代)(价)(,并)(非)(财)(政)(支)(出)(,而)(以)(其)(它)(形)(式)(“兑)(付)(”。一)(言)(以)(蔽)(之)(,包)(括)(东)(京)(在)(内)(的)(日)(本)(现)(代)(城)(市)(面)(貌)(往)(往)(奇)(丑)(无)(比)(,它)(们)(在)(视)(觉)(效)(果)(上)(对)(建)(筑)(并)(无)(统)(一)(协)(调)(,基)(本)(未)(留)(出)(空)(地)(,‘高)(质)(量)(建)(筑)(’通)(常)(意)(味)(着)(‘抗)(震)(效)(果)(好)(’。
东)(京)(有)(些)(年)(代)(更)(为)(久)(远)(的)(反)(乌)(托)(邦)(式)(公)(寓)(楼)(与)(工)(业)(为)(主)(的)(西)(伯)(利)(亚)(可)(以)(说)(不)(相)(上)(下)(。仿)(哥)(特)(式)(城)(堡)(并)(非)(异)(想)(天)(开)(之)(作)(:诸)(位)(不)(妨)(可)(以)(造)(访)(正)(对)(目)(黑)(区)((Meguro)运)(河)(的)(Emperor情)(人)(旅)(馆)(。最)(让)(人)(扫)(兴)(的)(莫)(过)(于)(东)(京)(郊)(区)(,一)(排)(排)(紧)(挨)(着)(的)(廉)(价)(木)(质)(活)(动)(房)(。
“日)(本)(的)(规)(划)(制)(度)(完)(全)(放)(任)(自)(流)(,它)(真)(的)(是)(崇)(尚)(无)(为)(而)(治)(;而)(且)(日)(本)(规)(划)(制)(度)(是)(集)(权)(化)(与)(标)(准)(化)(至)(上)(。这)(意)(味)(着)(它)(可)(灵)(活)(应)(对)(社)(会)(和)(经)(济)(的)(变)(化)(。”冈)(田)(说)(。
“另)(一)(方)(面)(,日)(本)(不)(太)(擅)(长)(原)(样)(复)(制)(某)(国)(某)(个)(特)(定)(城)(镇)(。它)(无)(法)(建)(造)(出)(像)(英)(国)(或)(欧)(洲)(等)(国)(的)(迷)(人)(城)(市)(。”冈)(田)(希)(望)(中)(央)(政)(府)(能)(大)(幅)(放)(权)(于)(地)(方)(政)(府)(。
然)(而)(也)(不)(尽)(然)(。在)(私)(家)(住)(宅)(这)(一)(层)(面)(,如)(果)(诸)(位)(“视)(而)(不)(见)(”自)(己)(邻)(家)(房)(子)(的)(话)(,那)(么)(东)(京)(充)(斥)(着)(创)(新)(与)(美)(景)(。由)(于)(日)(本)(建)(筑)(师)(可)(以)(自)(由)(地)(建)(造)(房)(屋)(,因)(此)(该)(国)(不)(断)(涌)(现)(普)(利)(兹)(克)(奖)((PritzkerPrize)得)(主)(并)(非)(偶)(然)(。
日)(本)(的)(城)(市)(化)(——全)(向)(十)(字)(路)(口)((“scramble”pedestriancrossings)、狭)(窄)(的)(街)(道)(、人)(口)(稠)(密)(以)(及)(异)(常)(发)(达)(的)(公)(共)(交)(通)(——毫)(无)(疑)(问)(会)(成)(为)(亚)(洲)(、乃)(至)(全)(世)(界)(的)(样)(板)(。
最)(重)(要)(的)(是)(:东)(京)(又)(是)(公)(平)(的)(。丑)(陋)(的)(建)(筑)(里)(既)(住)(着)(穷)(人)(,也)(住)(着)(富)(人)(,廉)(租)(房)(同)(样)(如)(此)(。而)(在)(伦)(敦)(及)(旧)(金)(山)(,美)(景)(人)(人)(都)(有)(份)(,只)(是)(有)(些)(人)(身)(处)(贫)(民)(窟)(欣)(赏)(它)(,而)(有)(些)(人)(则)(坐)(在)(九)(霄)(云)(天)(的)(豪)(华)(飞)(机)(中)(纵)(情)(俯)(瞰)(它)(。
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